Lecture - 7/8/99
Lera Boroditsky
Seeing Color: Figures

Figure 1. Can you spot the word hidden in this array?

Figure 2. Here's the same array, only color has been added.

Figure 3. Light varies both in amplitude (what we see as brightness) and in wavelength (what we see as color)

Figure 4. White light passed through a prism breaks up into its spectral components.
[source: Pink Floyd, Dark side of the moon album cover]

Figure 5. A drawing Isaac Newton made of the prism experiment he conducted in his dormroom in Cambridge.

Figure 6. Adding a second (up-side-down) prism to Newton's set up recombines the different wavelegths into white light.
[source: Coren et al., Sensation and Perception, 5th Ed.]

Figure 7a. Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of sunlight and a Tungsten bulb (regular light bulb)

Figure 7. Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of some common objects
[source: Goldstein, Sensation and Perception, 4th Ed.]

Figure 8. Additive color mixing of light

Figure 9. Pigments, unlike lights, mix subtractively. This figure shows why combining blue and yellow paint makes green.

Figure 10. The color circle.

Figure 11. The 3-D color solid.
[Source: Coren et al., Sensation & Perception, 5th Ed.]

Figure 12. Peak sensitivities of the three different cone types
[Source: Hubel, Eye, Brain, and Vision, 2nd Ed.]

Figure 13. This graph shows how different ratios of response from the different cone types leads to perception of different colors. (the bigger the arrow shown, the more response from the cone type)

Figure 14. SPDs of two metamers. Can you predict what these colors would look like? Would you predict that they should look exactly the same?

Figure 15. This graph shows how different combinations of wavelengths can differentially activate the three cone types to produce the sensation of color that we see.
[Source: Hubel, Eye, Brain, and Vision, 2nd Ed.]

Overview of Trichromacy & Early color encoding
[Source: Wandel, Foundations of Vision]

Figure 16. Stare at the center of this flag for 40 seconds (try not to move your eyes). Then, quickly look at the white area below. What do you see?

Figure 17. Red-center, green-surround opponent cell.

Figure 18. Firing patterns of opponent cells

Figure 19. Building an opponent cell

Figure 20. A collage by Joseph Albers - the X on top looks yellow, and the X on the bottom looks brown. Indeed their spectral power distributions are exactly the same.

Figure 21. Single and Double-opponent cells

Overview of the color pathway.

Figure 22. People with red/green color deficit can't see the number hidden in this array
[source: Goldstein, Sensation & Perception, 4th Ed.]

Figure 23. Three types of dichromats